Visas are the permission that are granted by a autonomous nation to a traveler permitting entry into that country for a specific purpose. an endorsement/stamp/label on a passport indicating that the holder is allowed to enter, leave, or stay for a specified period of time in a country. The most common types of visas are granted for the specific purposes of tourism, business or attending a conference, establishing temporary or permanent residence, or going to study.
The cost will depend on the visa you apply for depending on the embassy of particular country and services they offer you can check cost in visa page by selecting destination country, purpose of visit and resident of city.
Depending on the country, you can get a visa before you travel from an consulate / embassy or at the airport upon arrival.
The fee is usually not refundable, even if your visa application is refused or if you withdraw your application, None of the fees paid for getting visa are refundable.
Visa on arrival is issued once you enter the respective country. This kind of visa is usually issued to tourists when the enter the visiting country for travel purpose. There are a few countries where you need not have a visa to enter. You can just buy an ticket to that country and land up there.
This varies allot depending on the embassy (country) and the type of service they offer.